Fundamentals of Programming

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Learning to code isn’t hard, and switching between different languages isn’t that hard either. Once you understand the fundamentals that apply to most programming languages you’ll be able to pick up new languages pretty quickly. Here are the fundamental building blocks of programming that applies to most languages.

Data Types

Stuff like strings, booleans, integers, null/nill, objects, and arrays. Everything you do will require knowledge of these things. You will find all this information in the manual.

Control Structures, Logical & Comparison Operators

Control structures help your code do different things depending on certain conditions that you set. This is where you decide what your application does, when, and how. You’ll need to have a really solid understanding of how to use Control structures, logical, and comparison operators to be a good programmer. Get some real world practice with out Programming Challenges.

Functions & Objects

Functions and objects are everywhere. If you’re learning to code you need to learn how to use them pretty quickly. Functions allow you to re-use chunks of code. Objects/Classes allow you to group related pieces of code together into a single “Object”. An example would be an “Enemy” object in a video game. An enemy object could include an image/vector of the enemy, variables like health meter, a name, weapons, etc… an Object also can include functions like attack, defend, speak, etc…

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Object Oriented Programming

This helps with the structure and logic of your code by organizing your entire codebase into objects and classes that communicate with each other. OOP (Object Oriented Programming) takes practice, and you’ll need to experiment to see what works and what doesn’t. Practice following the acronym of S.O.L.I.D. This is the standard of Object Oriented Programming and it separates the bad programmers from the good ones.

Web Frameworks

Most web development languages have a couple frameworks to choose from, and you’ll want to pick one to learn. A web framework takes time to really get the hang of. It is a bunch of technologies wrapped together to provide a programmer all the tools they need to build their web app faster. It helps you with things like routing, communicating with the database, separating logic into organized sections, and more.


The best way to learn programming is to build stuff and fill your portfolio with cool projects. Programming exercises are also a great way to develop your skills as a programmer. Check out our Programming Challenges page. Part of the fun in learning to code is getting to experience all the different elements of technology. There are as many differences as there are similarities. If you switch to a different type of programming it’s going to be drastically different, but once you have the building blocks, it should be easier to find your way around.

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